Bush, R. M. and Frank, S. A. 2018. Occupational immunity and natural vaccination. ResearchGate doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.14987.34082.

People who work with animals are frequently exposed to dangerous pathogens. Disease and subsequent immunity may result. Alternatively, occupational exposure to animals may lead to natural vaccination: the acquisition of immunity in the absence of overt disease. We use anthrax, Q fever, Campylobacter and influenza to illustrate aspects of dose, route and frequency of exposure that may be particularly favorable to natural vaccination. We then explore how exposure and immunity in those who work with animals provide clues about the epidemiology of emerging infectious diseases.