Frank, S. A. 2016. Puzzles in modern biology. I. Male sterility, failure reveals design. F1000Research 5:2288.

Many human males produce dysfunctional sperm. Various plants frequently abort pollen. Hybrid matings often produce sterile males. Widespread male sterility is puzzling. Natural selection prunes reproductive failure. Puzzling failure implies something that we do not understand about how organisms are designed. Solving the puzzle reveals the hidden processes of design.


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